Propagation speed Radiology Reference Article

The propagation speed of sound waves through tissue is an important element of ultrasound scans. Ultrasound machines assume sound waves travel at a speed of 1540 m/sec through tissue 1.In reality, the speed of sound is affected by the density and elasticity of the medium through which it is traveling and these factors are not constant for human tissues.

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COVID-19 pneumonia Radiology Case Radiopaedia.org

Presentation. Recent travel from endemic COVID-19 region. 24 hours confusion with new temperature and desaturation on assessment.

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COVID-19 pneumonia Radiology Case Radiopaedia.org

This patient tested positive for COVID-19, without a travel history to high-risk areas (including Northern Italy). Chest CT appearance is almost typical, including ground-glass opacities, air-space opacification and crazy paving with no significant lymphadenopathy. Further reading (external links) latest articles on COVID-19 - European Radiology.

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COVID-19 pneumonia Radiology Case Radiopaedia.org

This patient tested positive for COVID-19, without a travel history to high-risk areas (including Northern Italy). Chest CT appearance is almost typical, including ground-glass opacities, air-space opacification and crazy paving with no significant lymphadenopathy. Further reading (external links) latest articles on COVID-19 - European Radiology.

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Refraction Radiology Reference Article Radiopaedia.org

Refraction of a sound wave occurs if it travels between tissues with different propagation speeds. As the incident pulse or returning echo strikes an interface of different density or elasticity and therefore a different propagation speed , the direction of the wave changes according to Snell’s law 1 …

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Radiology for students (curriculum) …

Sound waves travel inside the patient and 'bounce back' off of internal structures such as bone or organs. The relative density of each substance varies and so does how much of the sound is reflected. These reflected waves are read by the same probe and are converted to produce a real-time image on the machine. Tissues are described by their

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X-ray tube Radiology Reference Article …

X-ray tube. An x-ray tube functions as a specific energy converter, receiving electrical energy and converting it into two other forms of energy: x-radiation (1%) and heat (99%). Heat is considered the undesirable product of this conversion process; therefore x-radiation is created by taking the energy from the electrons and converting it into

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XCCL view Radiology Reference Article …

XCCL view. An XCCL view is a supplementary mammographic view. It is a type of exaggerated cranio-caudal view. It is particularly good for imaging the lateral aspect of the breast. It is often done when a lesion is suspected on a MLO view but cannot be seen on the CC view . In this view, the lateral aspect of the breast is placed forward.

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Pleura Radiology Reference Article Radiopaedia.org

12 th rib: both right and left pleural lines travel posteriorly around the chest wall. The visceral pleura remains roughly two ribs higher than the lines of pleural reflection in the lower thorax (e.g. visceral pleura crosses MAL at the level of the 8th rib).

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Prostate Radiology Reference Article Radiopaedia.org

Neurovascular bundles travel posterolaterally at 5 and 7 o'clock and give off branches into the prostate at the apex and base 5. Zonal anatomy. The prostate is comprised of three distinct zones with different embryologic origins: peripheral zone; central zone; transition zone

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COVID-19 pneumonia Radiology Case Radiopaedia.org

Three days cough, myalgias and fever. No recent overseas travel. Only sick contact was her husband who was recently hospitalized with presumed community-acquired pneumonia but not tested for COVID-19. Past history of vascath in-situ for dialysis on a background of chronic end-stage renal failure with dysfunctional A-V fistula.

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Attenuation (ultrasound) Radiology Reference Article

Attenuation (ultrasound) The amplitude and intensity of ultrasound waves decrease as they travel through tissue, a phenomenon known as attenuation. Given a fixed propagation distance, attenuation affects high frequency ultrasound waves to a greater degree than lower frequency waves. This dictates the use of lower frequency transducers for

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Distance measurement Radiology Reference Article

Firstly, it assumes sound waves travel at a constant propagation speed through tissue. Secondly, it assumes the pulse and resultant echo have traveled a direct path, i.e. with no refraction. The limitations of these assumptions are evidenced by speed displacement artifact and refraction artifact, respectively 2.

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Phrenic nerve Radiology Reference Article Radiopaedia.org

Both travel anterior to the hilum/bronchus on their respective side. Left phrenic nerve After entering the thorax posterior to the subclavian vein it descends lateral to the left subclavian artery , arch of the aorta , left auricle and left ventricle (in contact with pericardium ) before piercing the dome of the left hemidiaphragm to enter the

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Cystic duct Radiology Reference Article Radiopaedia.org

The cystic artery (branch of right hepatic artery) can often travel behind the cystic duct to supply the gallbladder. Variant anatomy. There are three main variations of the cystic duct 3: low cystic duct insertion: into the distal-third of the CHD (~10%) medial cystic duct insertion: into the left, not the right, side of the CHD (~15%)

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COVID-19 Radiology Reference Article Radiopaedia.org

COVID-19 ( coronavirus disease 2019) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 ( SARS-CoV-2 ), a strain of coronavirus. The first cases were seen in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 before spreading globally, with more than 3 million deaths and 160 million cases now confirmed.

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Umbilical arterial catheters Radiology Reference Article

Umbilical arterial catheters (UACs) are used in neonatal care for arterial sampling and need to be carefully assessed on all neonatal films. Position. The catheter should pass through the umbilicus, travel inferiorly through the umbilical artery, then in the anterior division of the internal iliac artery, into the common iliac artery and then into the aorta.

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Superior orbital fissure (mnemonic) Radiology Reference

Superior orbital fissure (mnemonic) A A and Assoc Prof Frank Gaillard et al. Mnemonic for all structures passing through the superior orbital fissure (superior to inferior) include: Long Fissures Seem To Store Only Nerves, Instead Of Arteries, Including Ophthalmic Veins. Mnemonics for the nerves passing through the superior orbital fissure include:

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Cavernous sinus gas Radiology Reference Article

Any intravenous injectate administered into the upper extremity normally travel through the axillary, subclavian, and brachiocephalic veins to empty into the superior vena cava. However under certain clinical circumstances such as stenosis of the brachiocephalic vein/SVC, heart failure, coughing etc. it flows cephalad through the internal and

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Sympathetic chain Radiology Reference Article

axons travel from the target organ to the dorsal root ganglion via the same plexus and nerves that carry efferent fibers; sympathetic axons can synapse at the intermediolateral nucleus to form a sympathetic reflex arc, or ascend to the hypothalamus within the spinal cord; Branches

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Inferior orbital fissure Radiology Reference Article

The inferior orbital fissure (IOF) lies in the floor of the orbit inferior to the superior orbital fissure and it is bounded superiorly by the greater wing of sphenoid, inferiorly by maxilla and orbital process of palatine bone and laterally by the zygomatic bone.It opens into posterolateral aspect of orbital floor. It joins medially with the pterygomaxillary fissure at a right angle.

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Ejaculatory pathway of sperm (mnemonic) Radiology

Ejaculatory pathway of sperm (mnemonic) Assoc Prof Frank Gaillard and Dr Owen Kang et al. A useful mnemonic to remember the ejaculatory pathway of sperm is: SEVEN UP.

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Carpal tunnel Radiology Reference Article Radiopaedia.org

The carpal tunnel is a fibro-osseous canal in the anterior (volar) wrist that acts as a passageway for structures between the forearm and the anterior hand. Gross anatomy Boundaries superficial border (roof): flexor retinaculum deep border (f

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Intra-articular loose bodies Radiology Reference Article

Intra-articular bodies are composed of cartilage or cartilage and bone and result from any process that leads to disruption of the articular surface. They derive nutrition from synovial fluid and contain any of the cells of bone or cartilage. The surface cells form more cartilaginous layers, so …

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Cerebral malaria Radiology Reference Article

Cerebral malaria is a rare intracranial complication of a malarial infection. Epidemiology Cerebral malaria is mainly encountered in young children and adults living or traveling in malaria-endemic areas. It is estimated to occur in ~2% of pati

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Perineural spread of tumor Radiology Reference Article

Terminology. An important distinction has to be made between perineural invasion (PNI) and perineural spread (PNS). The former is a histological finding of tumor cell infiltration or associated with small nerves that cannot be radiologically imaged, while the latter is macroscopic tumor involvement along a nerve extending away from the primary tumor; this can be radiologically apparent.

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Primary visual cortex Radiology Reference Article

Primary visual cortex. The primary visual cortex ( Brodmann area 17 ) is also known as the calcarine cortex, striate cortex, or V1. It is the main site of input of signals coming from the retina. It is located on the medial aspect of the occipital lobe, in the gyrus superior and inferior to the calcarine sulcus.

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Kilovoltage peak Radiology Reference Article

Kilovoltage peak (kVp) is the peak potential applied to the x-ray tube, which accelerates electrons from the cathode to the anode in radiography or computed tomography.. Tube voltage, in turn, determines the quantity and quality of the photons generated.. An increase in kVp extends and intensifies the x-ray emission spectrum, such that the maximal and average/effective energies are higher and

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Precentral gyrus Radiology Reference Article

The precentral gyrus, also known as the primary motor cortex, is a very important structure involved in executing voluntary motor movements.. Gross anatomy. The precentral gyrus is a diagonally oriented cerebral convolution situated in the posterior portion of the frontal lobe. It is located immediately anterior to the central sulcus (fissure of Rolando), running parallel to it 1-2.

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Pulmonary embolism rule-out criteria (PERC) Radiology

Pulmonary embolism rule-out criteria (PERC) Dr Henry Knipe and Dr. Philip Dempsey et al. The pulmonary embolism rule-out criteria ( PERC) may be utilized to negate the need for further pulmonary embolism (PE) workup in patients who are deemed low risk for …

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Peroneus brevis muscle Radiology Reference Article

Peroneus brevis muscle. The peroneus brevis muscle, also known as the fibularis brevis muscle, is a muscle in the lateral compartment of the leg. It lies deep/medial to the adjacent peroneus longus, and is a shorter and smaller muscle. Both brevis and longus travel together along the lateral aspect of the ankle within a shared synovial sheath 4.

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Collimator (Gamma camera) Radiology Reference Article

The collimator of a Gamma camera used in nuclear medicine differs in structure and function to the beam collimators used in general radiography.. They typically consist of a lead disc drilled with tens of thousands of closely packed holes, separated from each other by septa. Each hole only accepts Gamma rays to travel through a narrow channel.

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Cerebral malaria Radiology Case Radiopaedia.org

Cerebral malaria is a life-threatening complication of infection with Plasmodium falciparum. In adults, cerebral malaria is part of a multi-organ disease. The clinical hallmark of cerebral malaria is impaired consciousness, with coma the most severe manifestation. Without treatment, cerebral malaria is invariably fatal, especially in children.

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Acute pulmonary embolism with pulmonary infarct

Suboptimal timing of the examination, however, there are bilateral moderate volume emboli extending from the pulmonary trunk bifurcation to the subsegmental arteries of the right upper lobe, right middle lobe, right lower lobe and left lower lobe. Pulmonary trunk caliber is on the upper limits of normal. No other features of right heart strain.

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Great saphenous vein Radiology Reference Article

The great saphenous vein forms on the dorsum of the foot as the continuation of the medial marginal vein of the foot. It then passes anteriorly to the medial malleolus to ascend at first medial to and then posterior to the medial aspect of the tibia. The great saphenous vein then winds its way around the medial aspect of the knee and continues

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Neurocysticercosis Radiology Case Radiopaedia.org

Case Discussion. This is an atypical case of neurocysticercosis with an isolated lesion. Differentials are of tuberculoma, abscess or primary tumor (GBM). It is important to consider neurocysticercosis especially with a history of new onset seizures and travel to/from geographically endemic regions 1.

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Papillary thyroid cancer nodal metastases Radiology Case

There had been no travel to, or contact with persons from areas with endemic TB, no history of smoking or of decreased immunity. CT examination revealed numerous cystic structures predominantly along the deep cervical lymph node chain. These have thin walls and some areas of calcification. A similar cystic area can be seen in the lateral aspect

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Radioactive seed migration to the lungs after prostate

A brachytherapy seed from prostate cancer treatment has migrated to the lungs. Now we will do pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and CT of lungs as a baseline to evaluate for any local radiation-induced damage. Brief literature search showed one d

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